Jersey Jair Underwing Hugh D. McGuinness

Jersey Jair Underwing
Hugh D. McGuinness

Class
Insecta (Insects)
Family
Erebidae
State Protection
Special Concern
Listed as Special Concern by New York State: at risk of becoming Threatened; not listed as Endangered or Threatened, but concern exists for its continued welfare in New York; NYS DEC may promulgate regulations as to the taking, importation, transportation, or possession as it deems necessary.
Federal Protection
Not Listed
State Conservation Status Rank
S1S2
Critically Imperiled or Imperiled in New York - Especially or very vulnerable to disappearing from New York due to rarity or other factors; typically 20 or fewer populations or locations in New York, very few individuals, very restricted range, few remaining acres (or miles of stream), and/or steep declines. More information is needed to assign either S1 or S2.
Global Conservation Status Rank
G4?T4?
Apparently Secure globally (most likely) - Conservation status of both the species as a whole and the subspecies/variety is uncertain, but most likely both are uncommon in the world but not rare; usually widespread, but may be rare in some parts of its range; possibly some cause for long-term concern due to declines or other factors. More information is needed to assign a firm conservation status for both the species as a whole and for the subspecies/variety.

Summary

Did you know?

Approximately 98% of Jersey jair underwings (Catocala jair ssp. 2) can be distinguished from jair underwings (Catocala jair) by differences in their forewing color alone (NatureServe 2010).

State Ranking Justification

Within New York State, the Jersey jair underwing is known to occur only on Long Island. Currently, three populations are documented. Throughout its range, the moth is generally rare and local, having a spotty distribution and being restricted to major areas of dry oak scrub.

Short-term Trends

The short-term trend for the Jersey jair underwing in New York State indicates that the population is stable. The species is widespread in the Dwarf Pine Plains. At this site, approximately 180 individuals were captured over the course of seven survey years between 1986 and 2005, indicating that the population is viable and reproducing. The other two documented populations in the state are on protected lands.

Long-term Trends

The long-term trend for the Jersey jair underwing in New York State is unknown (New York State Department of Environmental Conservation 2005). However, it is possible that the population has undergone a substantial decline since the extent of its habitat, pitch pine-scrub oak barrens, in the state has been reduced substantially since historic times (Wagner et al. 2003).

Conservation and Management

Threats

Elimination and fragmentation of habitat by commercial and residential development is the main threat to moth and butterfly species such as the Jersey jair underwing that inhabit shrublands in southern New England and southeastern New York. Fire suppression and allowing succession may eliminate suitable habitat for the Jersey jair underwing (Wagner et al. 2003), while excessive prescribed burning and wild fires that consume entire occupied habitats are also threats (NatureServe 2010). Lights from adjacent areas such as airports can also disturb the moths.

Conservation Strategies and Management Practices

Maintaining suitable habitat is the main management need. The natural communities that the Jersey jair underwing inhabits require periodic fire or mechanical management for their maintenance. When conducting prescribed burns, it is necessary to retain substantial unburned patches (refugia), since survival of Jersey jair underwings in burned areas is minimal. Therefore, it is ideal for occupied habitats to be subjected to infrequent partial burns (Wagner et al. 2003; NatureServe 2010). In addition, in occupied areas it would be beneficial to restrict ATV use and to minimize lighting to maintain dark sky conditions.

Habitat

Habitat

The Jersey jair underwing inhabits dry, open pitch pine-scrub oak barrens and other habitats that contain the larval foodplant, scrub oak (Quercus ilicifolia) (Wagner et al. 2003). In New York State, it has been found in several habitats including dwarf pine plains, maritime heathlands, and pitch pine-oak-heath woodlands.

Associated Ecological Communities

  • Dwarf pine plains (guide)
    A woodland community dominated by dwarf individuals of pitch pine and scrub oak that occurs on nearly level outwash sand and gravel plains in eastern Long Island. The soils are infertile, coarse textured sands that are excessively well-drained.
  • Maritime heathland (guide)
    A dwarf shrubland community that occurs on rolling outwash plains and moraine of the glaciated portion of the Atlantic coastal plain, near the ocean and within the influence of onshore winds and salt spray.
  • Pitch pine-oak-heath woodland (guide)
    A pine barrens community that occurs on well-drained, infertile, sandy soils. The structure of this community is intermediate between a shrub-savanna and a woodland. Pitch pine and white oak are the most abundant trees.

Range

New York State Distribution

The Jersey jair underwing is known to occur on Long Island.

Global Distribution

The Jersey jair underwing has a widespread range, but within that range it has a very spotty distribution and is restricted to major areas of dry oak scrub. It is known mostly from New Jersey and east Texas, but it also occurs in New York (Long Island), eastern North Carolina, the Florida panhandle, and Oklahoma. It likely occurs elsewhere in between (NatureServe 2010).

Best Places to See

  • Napeague State Park (Suffolk County)

Identification Comments

Identifying Characteristics

The Jersey jair underwing is a colorful moth with a wingspan of approximately 35-40 mm. Its forewings contain brown shading between the postmedial and subterminal lines, and its hind wings are yellowish orange, with black only at the border (Covell 1984). The caterpillar is pale gray with uniform gray mottling (Wagner et al. 2008).

Best Life Stage for Proper Identification

The adult is the best life stage for identification.

Behavior

There is one generation each year. Adults lay their eggs in bark crevices or in the leaf litter at the base of the larval foodplant, scrub oak (Quercus ilicifolia). The eggs overwinter. In the spring, larvae (caterpillars) must eat new leaves rather than older, hardened vegetation. The larvae seem to have five instars before pupating and emerging as adults. Adults have a relatively long flight season (Wagner et al. 2008), lasting from early July until early September in New York State.

Diet

In southern New England and New York State, larvae feed on scrub oak (Quercus ilicifolia).

Best Time to See

The best time to see the Jersey jair underwing is during its flight season. In New York State, it has been captured flying from early July until early September.

  • Present
  • Reproducing

The time of year you would expect to find Jersey Jair Underwing present and reproducing in New York.

Jersey Jair Underwing Images

Taxonomy

Jersey Jair Underwing
Catocala jair ssp. 2 None

  • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Mandibulata (Mandibulates)
      • Class Insecta (Insects)
        • Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies, Skippers, and Moths)
          • Family Erebidae

Additional Resources

References

Brou Jr., Vernon A. 2004. A long known and undescribed Catocala in Louisiana. South. Lepid. News 26:74.

Covell, Charles V. 1984. A field guide to the moths of eastern North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

NatureServe. 2010. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. (Data last updated August 2010)

New York Natural Heritage Program. 2019. New York Natural Heritage Program Databases. Albany, NY.

New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. 2005. Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy Planning Database. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY.

North American Moth Photographers Group at the Mississippi Entomological Museum. No date. Mississippi State University, Mississippi. http://mothphotographersgroup.msstate.edu/MainMenu.shtml

Opler, Paul A., Kelly Lotts, and Thomas Naberhaus, coordinators. 2010. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Bozeman, MT: Big Sky Institute. <http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/> (accessed May 2010).

Wagner, D. L., D. F. Schweitzer, J. B. Sullivan, and R. C. Reardon. 2008. Owlet Caterpillars of Eastern North America (Lepidoptera: Noctudiae)

Wagner, David L., Nelson, Michael W., and Schweitzer, Dale F. 2003. Shrubland Lepidoptera of southern New England and southeastern New York: ecology, conservation, and management. Forest Ecology and Management 185: 95-112.

Links

About This Guide

This guide was authored by: Andrea Chaloux

Information for this guide was last updated on: February 7, 2012

Please cite this page as:
New York Natural Heritage Program. 2019. Online Conservation Guide for Catocala jair ssp. 2. Available from: https://guides.nynhp.org/jersey-jair-underwing/. Accessed May 22, 2019.

Back to top