American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.
American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 2006. Forty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. The Auk 123(3):1926-936.
American Ornithologists' Union. 1998. Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Andrle, Robert F. and Janet R. Carroll, editors. 1988. The atlas of breeding birds in New York State. Cornell University Press. 551 pp.
Atwood, J. L. and P. R. Kelly. 1984. Fish dropped on breeding colonies as indicators of Least Tern food habits. Wilson Bulletin 96:34-47.
Atwood, J. L., and B. W. Massey. 1988. Site fidelity of least terns in California. Condor 90:389-394.
Bent, A.C. 1921. Life histories of North American gulls and terns. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 113. Washington, D.C.
Blus, L. J., and R. M. Prouty. 1979. Organochlorine pollutants and population status of least terns in South Carolina. Wilson Bull. 91:62-71.
Brown, K.M., J.L. Tims, R.M. Erwin, and M.E. Richmond. 2001. Changes in the nesting populations of colonial waterbirds in Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, New York, 1974-1998. Northeastern Naturalist 8(3): 275-292.
Buckley, P. A., and F. G. Buckley. 1984. Seabirds of the north and middle Atlantic coast of the United States: their status and conservation. Pages 101-133 in Croxall et al., eds. Status and conservation of the world's seabirds. ICBP Tech. Pub. No. 2.
Bull, J. 1974. Birds of New York state. Doubleday/Natural History Press, Garden City, New York. Reprint, 1985 (with Supplement, Federation of New York Bird Clubs, 1976), Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, New York.
Bull, John. 1974. Birds of New York State. Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 655 pp.
Burger, J. 1984. Colony stability in least terns. Condor 86:61-67.
Burger, J. 1988. Social attraction in nesting least terns: effects of numbers, spacing, and pair bonds. Condor 90:575-582.
Burger, J. 1989. Least Tern populations in coastal New Jersey: monitoring and management of a regionally-endangered species. Journal of Coastal Research 5:801-811.
Burger, J., and M. Gochfeld. 1990. Nest site selection in least terns (Sterna antillarum) in New Jersey and New York. Colonial Waterbirds 13:31-40.
Clapp, R. B., and P. A. Buckley. 1984. Status and conservation of seabirds in the southeastern United States. Pages 135-155 in Croxall et al., eds. Status and conservation of the world's seabirds. ICBP Tech. Pub. No. 2.
Cowgill, R. W. 1989. Nesting success of least terns on two South Carolina barrier islands in relation to human disturbance. Chat 53:81-87.
Cruickshank, A.D. 1942. Birds around New York City. American Museum of Natural History Handbook no.13. American Museum Press, New York.
Dorr, D. K. 1976. Least tern, Sterna albifrons, nesting habitat in Maine and its relevance to the Critical Areas Program. Maine Critical Areas Program, Planning Report No. 11.21 pp.
Downing, R. L. 1980. Survey of interior least tern nesting populations. Am. Birds 34:209-211.
Ehrlich, P. R., D. S. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1992. Birds in Jeopardy: the Imperiled and Extinct Birds of the United States and Canada, Including Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 259 pp.
Engstrom, R. T., G. S. Butcher, and J. D. Lowe. 1990. Population trends in the least tern (Sterna antillarum) from Maine to Virginia: 1975-1986. Pages 130-138 in J. R. Sauer and S. Droege, editors. Survey designs and statistical methods for the estimation of avian population trends. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 90(1)). 166 pp.
Erwin, R. M. 1978a. Population and colony site dynamics in selected Massachusetts seabirds. Proc. 1977 Conf. Colonial Waterbirds Group 1:19-25.
Farrand, J., editor. 1983. Audubon Society master guide to birding. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 3 vols., 1244 pp.
Forbush, E. H. 1925-1929. Birds of Massachusetts and other New England states. 3 vols. Massachusetts Dept. Agric., Boston.
Garcia, A. and G. Ceballos. 1995. Reproduction and breeding success of California Least Terns in Jalisco, Mexico. Condor 97:1084-1087.
Giraud, J.P., Jr. 1844. Birds of Long Island. Wiley & Putnam, New York.
Gochfeld, M. 1983. Colony site selection by least terns: physical attributes of sites. Colonial Waterbirds 6:205-213.
Hagan, J. M., III, and D. W. Johnston, editors. 1992. Ecology and conservation of neotropical migrant landbirds. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. xiii + 609 pp.
Harrison, C. 1978. A Field Guide to the Nests, Eggs and Nestlings of North American Birds. Collins, Cleveland, Ohio.
Houde, P. 1977. Low productivity of terns on Hicks Island, 1975. Proc. Linn. Soc. 73:49-57.
Keane, K. 1987. Sex roles in the parental care of Least Terns (Sterna antillarum). Master's Thesis. California State Univ., Long Beach, CA.
Kotliar, N. B. 1984. Colony site selection and abandonment by least terns in New Jersey. M.S. thesis, Rutgers Univ.
Kotliar, N. B., and J. Burger. 1984. The use of decoys to attract least terns (Sterna antillarum) to abandoned colony sites in New Jersey. Colonial Waterbirds 7:134-138.
Kress, S. W., E. H. Weinstein, and I. C. T. Nisbet. 1983. The status of tern populations in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Colonial Waterbirds 6:84-106.
Kress, S. W., and C. S. Hall. 2004. Tern Management Handbook - Coastal Northeastern United States and Atlantic Canada. U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Hadley, MA.
Levine, E. 1998. Bull's birds of New York State. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NY.
Litwin, S. 1983. Long Island least tern and piping plover survey. Seatuck Research Program, Cornell Univ. and New York Dept. Environ. Conservation. 35 pp.
MacLean, D. C., et al. 1991. Nesting biology, habitat use, and inter-colony movements of the least tern (Sterna antillarum) on Long Island, N.Y. The Seatuck Research Program in cooperation with the New York State Dept. of Environ. Conserv. 70 pp.
Massey, B. W. 1976. Vocal differences between American least terns and the European little tern. Auk 93:760-773.
Massey, B. W., and J. L. Atwood. 1978. Plumages of the least tern. Bird-banding 49:360-371.
McGowan, K.J. and K. Corwin, eds. 2008. The Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in New York State: 2000-2005. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. 688 pp.
Minsky, D. 1980. Preventing fox predation at a least tern colony with an electric fence. J. Field Ornithology 51(2):17-18.
Minsky, D. 1981. The terns of Cape Cod. The Associaiton for the Preservation of Cape Cod, Informational Bull. No. 9. 34 pp.
Moseley, L. J. 1976. Behavior and communication in the least tern. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. North Carolina. 164 pp.
National Geographic Society (NGS). 1983. Field guide to the birds of North America. National Geographic Society, Washington, DC.
New York Natural Heritage Program. 2023. New York Natural Heritage Program Databases. Albany, NY.
New York State Breeding Bird Atlas. 1984. Preliminary species distribution maps, 1980-1984. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Wildlife Resources Center. Delmar, NY.
New York State Breeding Bird Atlas. 1985. Final breeding bird distribution maps, 1980-1985. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Wildlife Resources Center. Delmar, NY.
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. 1986. New York State Breeding Bird Atlas Database. Wildlife Resources Center. Delmar, NY.
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Checklist of the amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals of New York State, including their protective status. Nongame Unit, Wildlife Resources Center, Delmar, NY.
Peterson, R. T. 1990b. A field guide to western birds. Third edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 432 pp.
Sommers, Laura and Michelle L. Alfieri. 1998. 1997 Long Island Colonial waterbird and piping plover survey. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Nongame and Habitat Unit. Delmar, NY and Region 1, Stony Brook, NY.
Spendelow, J. A. and S. R. Patton. 1988. National Atlas of Coastal Waterbird Colonies in the Contiguous United States: 1976-1982. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Report 88(5). x + 326 pp.
Sprunt, A., IV. 1984. The status and conservation of seabirds of the Bahama Islands. Pages 157-168 in Croxall et al., eds. Status and conservation of the world's seabirds. ICBP Tech. Pub. No. 2.
Thompson, B. C., J. A. Jackson, J. Burger, L. A. Hill, E. M. Kirsch, and J. L. Atwood. 1997. Least Tern (Sterna antillarum). In A. Poole and F. Gill, editors, The Birds of North America, No. 290. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC. 32 pp.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1980. Selected vertebrate endangered species of the seacoast of the United States-- California least tern. FWS/OBS-80/01.20. 8 pp.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1983. Marine birds of the southeastern United States and Glf of Mexico. Part III. Charadriiformes. Pages 599-635.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1990. Endangered and threatened species recovery program: report to Congress. 406 pp.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1990. Recovery plan for the interior population of the least tern (Sterna antillarum). USFWS, Twin Cities, Minnesota. 90 pp.
Whitman, P. L. 1988. Biology and conservation of the endangered interior least tern: a literature review. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Report 88(3). 22 pp.
Wolk, R. G. 1954. Some preliminary observations on the reproductive behavior of the least tern.
Zickefoose, J. 1985. Least tern/piping plover recovery program. Final report to The Nature Conservancy, Connecticut Chapter. 22 pp.
van Halewyn, R., and R. L. Norton. 1984. The status and conservation of seabirds in the Caribbean. Pages 169-222 in Croxall et al., eds. Status and conservation of the world's seabirds. ICBP Tech. Pub. No. 2