Cardamine longii Stephen M. Young

Cardamine longii
Stephen M. Young

Class
Dicotyledoneae (Dicots)
Family
Brassicaceae (Mustard Family)
State Protection
Threatened
Federal Protection
Not Listed
State Conservation Status Rank
SNA
Global Conservation Status Rank
G3?

Summary

Did you know?

This plant is named for one of its discoverers, Bayard Long, a famous Pennsylvania botanist from the early 1900s. This is one of the few rare plants in New York where we have discovered more new populations than known historical populations. This may be due to the increased exploration in the last 20 years of the difficult terrain of freshwater tidal mud flats.

State Ranking Justification

This plant of tidal areas was once thought to be restricted to Long Island but in recent years has apparently been expanding its range northward up the Hudson River. Of the eleven known populations, nine are located along the Hudson River. The habitats on Long Island have been exploited, but most of today's known populations are found in protected landscapes. This inconspicuous plant is easily overlooked, so more populations are likely. Typical populations range from a few individuals to a few hundred plants.

Short-term Trends

More populations have recently been found along the Hudson River. Whether these have been here all along and only recently reported or if this plant has spread up the Hudson River is unclear. Since this is such an inconspicuous plant of tidal mud, there is a good probability they were simply overlooked for many years.

Long-term Trends

Similar to the short-term trend information, we can surmise that the long-term trend has at least been stable. There is a possibility this plant has spread northward and increased its numbers within New York, but documenting this positive trend will be difficult.

Conservation and Management

Threats

Habitat has been exploited on most of Long Island but the Hudson River occurrences seem to be secure.

Conservation Strategies and Management Practices

Monitor Phragmites invasion and erosion of river banks.

Research Needs

More research is needed to determine the best time to search for this plant. It seems that before late May and after mid-July it is very difficult to see this plant.

Habitat

Habitat

Mainly a plant of intertidal areas within tidal estuaries and backwater areas. These are often in shaded areas of tidal swamps, mudflats, and muddy banks along tidal creeks. A single non-tidal population is located on muddy, organic, alkaline soil within a swamp forest. (New York Natural Heritage Program 2004). Along tidal banks and muck-covered ledges shaded by northern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) (Crow 1982). Tidal estuaries (Fernald 1970). Borders of salt marshes (Gleason & Cronquist 1991).

Associated Ecological Communities

  • Brackish intertidal mudflats (guide)
  • Brackish intertidal shore
  • Brackish tidal marsh* (guide)
  • Dredge spoil wetland*
  • Estuarine common reed marsh*
  • Freshwater intertidal mudflats* (guide)
  • Freshwater intertidal shore (guide)
  • Freshwater tidal creek (guide)
  • Freshwater tidal marsh (guide)
  • Freshwater tidal swamp (guide)
  • Red maple-hardwood swamp (guide)
  • Saltwater tidal creek (guide)

Associated Species

  • Acer saccharinum (silver maple)
  • Acorus americanus (American sweet-flag)
  • Amaranthus cannabinus (salt marsh water-hemp)
  • Bidens bidentoides (estuary beggar-ticks)
  • Bidens cernua (nodding beggar-ticks)
  • Bidens laevis (smooth beggar-ticks)
  • Callitriche palustris (vernal water-starwort)
  • Crassula aquatica (pygmyweed)
  • Helenium autumnale (common sneezeweed)
  • Limosella australis (Atlantic mudwort)
  • Lindera benzoin (spicebush)
  • Lindernia dubia
  • Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife)
  • Nyssa sylvatica (black-gum, sour-gum)
  • Peltandra virginica (green arrow-arum, tuckahoe)
  • Pluchea odorata (salt marsh-fleabane)
  • Samolus valerandii
  • Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaved cat-tail)

Range

New York State Distribution

A small plant limited to the estuaries of Long Island and the Hudson River.

Global Distribution

A plant of tidal estuaries along the Cathance River (Maine), Agawam River (Massachusetts), Saugatucket River (Rhode Island), Hudson River and Long Island (New York), and the Chesapeake Bay (Maryland and Virginia). Historical records known from New Hampshire, Connecticut, New Jersey, and Delaware.

Best Places to See

  • Iona Island, Bear Mountain State Park (Rockland County)

Identification Comments

General Description

This is a small delicate mustard relative whose leaves and weak stems are often covered with mud from the tides. There are usually less than ten undivided leaves arranged alternately along the stem. They are rounded to kidney shaped. The small flower and fruit stalk arises from the top of the plant. The tiny flowers do not have petals and produce very narrow, oblong, thin, papery fruits about 5-10 mm long.

Identifying Characteristics

The leaves of this mustard relative are simple and reniform to suborbicular with a cordate base. Rarely there is a pair of rounded leaflets near the leaf base. The flowers are apetalous, 0.7-1.2 mm long, and subsessile. The siliques are lanceolate (5-10 mm long) and on thick pedicels (0.5-1.5 mm long).

Best Life Stage for Proper Identification

To properly identify this plant, one should have a mature plant with fruits and leaves.

Similar Species

C. pensylvanica is the other Cardamine species most similar and closely related to C. longii. Pennsylvania bittercress has larger fruits (1.7 to 2.7 cm ) than those of C. pensylvanica (0.5 to 1 cm). In addition C. pensylvanica stems have stiff hairs near its base (C. longii has a smooth stem), and obviously pinnate or pinnatifid leaves.

Best Time to See

This plant fruits from June through September, with some stalks occasionally persisting into October. Flowers are very small and often difficult to see, especially since they are often mud covered. Surveys should be conducted during the fruiting period.

  • Vegetative
  • Flowering
  • Fruiting

The time of year you would expect to find Long's Bittercress vegetative, flowering, and fruiting in New York.

Long's Bittercress Images

Taxonomy

Long's Bittercress
Cardamine longii Fern.

  • Kingdom Plantae
    • Phylum Anthophyta
      • Class Dicotyledoneae (Dicots)
        • Order Capparales
          • Family Brassicaceae (Mustard Family)

Additional Common Names

  • Saltmarsh Bittercress

Comments on the Classification

The taxonomic status of this plant requires investigation. L.M. Eastman suggests that this may be just a growth form of Cardamine pensylvanica whose morphological expression is greatly influenced by tidal action (Crow 1982).

Additional Resources

Best Identification Reference

Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

Other References

Crow, Garrett E. 1982. New England's Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Plants. Prepared for the United States Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Northeast Region. June 1982.

Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. D. Van Nostrand, New York. 1632 pp.

Holmgren, Noel. 1998. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

Mitchell, Richard S. and Gordon C. Tucker. 1997. Revised Checklist of New York State Plants. Contributions to a Flora of New York State. Checklist IV. Bulletin No. 490. New York State Museum. Albany, NY. 400 pp.

New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Enviromental Conservation. March 1998. Element Occurrence Record Database. Latham, NY.

New York Natural Heritage Program. 2019. New York Natural Heritage Program Databases. Albany, NY.

Reschke, Carol. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Latham, NY. 96 pp. plus xi.

Weldy, T. and D. Werier. 2010. New York flora atlas. [S.M. Landry, K.N. Campbell, and L.D. Mabe (original application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research http://www.fccdr.usf.edu/. University of South Florida http://www.usf.edu/]. New York Flora Association http://newyork.plantatlas.usf.edu/, Albany, New York

Links

About This Guide

Information for this guide was last updated on: September 8, 2004

Please cite this page as:
New York Natural Heritage Program. 2019. Online Conservation Guide for Cardamine longii. Available from: https://guides.nynhp.org/longs-bittercress/. Accessed March 20, 2019.

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