Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis) Ashok Kholsa

Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis)
Ashok Kholsa

Aves (Birds)
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinnules, and Coots)
State Protection
Federal Protection
Migratory Bird Treaty Act
State Conservation Status Rank
Global Conservation Status Rank


Did you know?

The Black Rail is the smallest rail in North America. In New York, there is only one known breeding population, making this species one of the state's rarest breeding birds (McGowan and Corwin 2008).

State Ranking Justification

In New York, there is only a single known location that Black Rails inhabit reliably (McGowan and Corwin 2008). A few other records from the breeding season exist but none have been confirmed breeding locations. A few nonbreeding records exist in the state, all from Long Island, and some of these individuals may be residents (McGowan and Corwin 2008). New York is at the northern extent of the species' eastern range. The closest neighboring populations, in New Jersey, are thought to be declining (Walsh et al. 1999, McGowan and Corwin 2008). Black Rails are listed as endangered by the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation.

Short-term Trends

The First (1980-85) and Second (2000-05) Breeding Bird atlas reported only one location of Black Rails in the state, so there was no known change in distribution in that time period (Andrle and Carroll 1988, McGowan and Corwin 2008). Inbetween the two atlases, there were reports of Black Rails at a few other sites on the south shore of Long Island including four birds calling from Moriches Inlet in Suffolk County and one record from Westchester and Jefferson Counties (Levine 1998, McGowan and Corwin 2008). It is unknown if any of these are regularly occurring breeding locations.

Long-term Trends

Since New York is at the northern extent of the Black Rails eastern range, this species is likely always to have been rare in the state. Eaton (1910) was aware of five specimens from New York, but the species was not confirmed as a breeder in the state until the discovery of a nest with eggs by Carleton in 1937 at Oak Beach in Suffolk County (McGowan and Corwin 2008, Levine 1998). Another breeding record was found in Nassau county in 1937 and the last in 1940. The species was rediscoved at the original Oak Beach site in 1968 (Post and Enders 1969). The loss of coastal saltmarsh habitat that is occuring at dramatice rates along the east coast (Erwin et al. 2004), due to weather, development, eutrophication, and especially conversion for agriculture had caused rangewide declines in Black Rail population numbers.

Conservation and Management


Black Rails are known to breed consistently in only one location along the southern coast of Long Island in New York. Due to their rarity, they are highly susceptible to extirpation through stochastic, or random, events such as flooding, a low year of nesting productivity, high predation, or disease. Besides rarity in itself, habitat loss is the other major threat to this species' persistence in the state. The loss of coastal salt marsh habitat is occurring at dramatic rates along the east coast (Erwin et al. 2004). The spread of an invasive plant called common reed (Phragmites australis) into high marsh habitat may degrade habitat for the rails. Studies have shown that there is lower diversity and abundance of macroinvertebrates in Phragmites dominant marshes compared to marshes consisting primarily of native Spartina cordgrasses (Angradi et al. 2001). These macroinvertebrates may be consumed directly by the Black Rails or may be eaten by other invertebrates or small prey that the Black Rails eat, thereby affecting the abundance of prey. However, at the one known breeding site for Black Rails in New York, Phragmites has been present since 1950, so the rails may have some tolerance to it. Ditching and draining of coastal salt marsh for agriculture and mosquito control were past threats that created long-term habitat loss, the effects of which are still present. Finally, global climate change is a significant long-term threat to the persistence of Black Rails in NY. Flooding, caused by extreme weather events, could decimate the breeding population in the state in a matter of years. Changes to hydrologic processes resulting from coastal development coupled with increases in sedimentary sulfide associated with human development are also believed to play primary roles in the decline of coastal salt marsh (Montalto and Steenhuis 2004, Kolker 2005). Coastal development and urbanization limits the inland expansion of coastal salt marsh and coupled with rising sea-levels will likely continue to shrink salt marsh habitat.

Conservation Strategies and Management Practices

Since Black Rails are especially susceptible to predation when forced from marsh habitat (Eddleman et al. 1994), efforts to restore native Spartina marsh should take into account Black Rail breeding season and available habitat. The use of fire to control the spread of invasives in marshes could be damaging to Black Rail habitat or could destroy nests and young if the burns are not timed properly. Efforts that restore and protect coastal high salt marsh would benefit this species (Eddleman et al. 1994).

Research Needs

Research is needed to determine the population and trends of the single reliable breeding location in the state. Many aspects of the species biology and life history remain understudied, including territoriality, social interactions and foraging behavior (see Eddleman et al. 1994). Reasearch on diet is limited (Eddleman et al. 1994) and would further understanding of food requirements in habitats that are changing due to the spread of invasive species and climate change. Further inventory of salt marshes on the south shore of Long Island and follow-up visits to incidental and suspected breeding locations may identify new breeding sites. Research into methods to retain current saltmarsh and restore areas that have been lost could benefit this species in the future.



Black Rails occupy coastal salt marsh habitat along the south shore of Long Island in New York. They are generally found in higher marsh habitat than other rail species, with lower water depths required for breeding. Rangewide habitats also include shallow freshwater marsh and wet meadows (Eddleman et al. 1988). In NY, they are known to nest in saltmeadow cordgrass (Spartina patens) (Bull 1964) and are suspected to breed in saltwater cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) as well (Post and Enders 1969). Black Rails are considered to be an area-sensitive species, requiring more than 50 ha of marsh habitat to breed, although their territories tend to be smaller than 5 ha (Wilson et al. 2007).

Associated Ecological Communities

  • Brackish meadow* (guide)
  • Freshwater tidal marsh* (guide)
  • High salt marsh (guide)
  • Salt panne (guide)


New York State Distribution

As breeders Black Rails are known only from the south shore of Long Island and have been reported in coastal Westchester County.

Global Distribution

Rangewide Black Rails breed locally in west-central and coastal southwestern California, along the lower Colorado River in California and Arizona, Kansas, along Atlantic coast from New York south to central Florida, Gulf Coast from Texas to Florida, Belize, and South America in western Peru, Chile, and western Argentina (AOU 1998, Eddleman et al. 1994). Recorded in summer (possibly breeding) south to northern Baja California, Veracruz, southern Florida, Cuba and, at least formerly, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica (AOU 1998), though probably extirpated by mongoose in Puerto Rico (Raffaele 1983). There are a few records in Canada but no confirmed breeding. Rangewide nonbreeding locations include the California coast, southeastern California, along Gulf Coast from Texas to Florida, and in Belize and South American breeding areas (AOU 1998).

Best Places to See

  • Gilgo State Park (Suffolk County)

Identification Comments

General Description

The Black Rail is the smallest rail in North America. The adults are blackish-gray with a darker top of the head, which is more evident in females. Males have a chestnut-colored nape. Adults have black or dark gray bills and red eyes.

Identifying Characteristics

The Black Rail is the smallest rail in North America and is only about the size of a sparrow. Both males and females are similar in size with adults ranging from 10-15 cm, with a wingspan of 22-28 cm, and weighing 35 g (eastern). Black Rails appear grey to blackish-grey. The top of the neck and upper back are chestnut-colored and the top of the head is a darker grey than surrounding plumage (this is more evident in females) (Eddleman et al. 1994). Adults have the unique characteristic of having red eyes. Black Rails are best identified by their call which is described as "kickee-doo" or "kic-kic-kerr". They can also make a vocalization similar to the "kicker- calls" of Virginia Rails (Rallus limicola). When disturbed, Black Rails make an agitated growl noise described as a "grrr", "brrr", or "churr" generally repeated three times in a sequence (Eddleman et al. 1994, Weske 1969, Wilbur 1974, Repking 1975, Kerlinger and Sutton 1989). Females at nests give a scolding call described as "ink-ink-ink-ink" or "nk-nk-nk-nk" and a similar call for males is "kik-kik-kik-kik" or "kuk-kuk-kuk-kuk" (Eddleman et al. 1994, Reynard 1974, Flores and Eddleman 1991, Wayne 1905). Females make a "croo-croo-croo" or "who-who-whooo" call rarely (Eddleman et al. 1994, Wayne 1905, Post and Enders 1969, Reynard 1972, Repking 1975, and Flores and Eddleman 1991).

Characters Most Useful for Identification

Black Rails are secretive marsh birds that are generally active at night. They are very difficult to observe without disturbing them. Black Rails are best identified by their call which is described as "kickee-doo" or "kic-kic-kerr". Observers should not disturb breeding individuals by playing rail calls at known breeding locations.

Best Life Stage for Proper Identification

Adult males are easiest to identify by their call.


Black Rails are secretive marsh birds that are generally active at night. Their primary mode of transportation around their habitat is by running along the ground. They may use pathways created by other animals like mice (Weske 1969). They are capable of swimming short-distances (Weske 1969). They are typically reluctant to fly and when they do, flights are short. During migration, however, they are fast and strong fliers (Eddleman et al. 1994). Black Rails live in dense cover and cease calling when predators are nearby. They may be depredated by herons especially during high tides, but also owls, mammals, and hawks (Eddleman et al. 1994).


Black Rails consume a variety of small aquatic invertebrates and seeds (Eddleman et al. 1994). Their diet appears to be somewhat opportunistic and information regarding diet is limited to a few studies of few individuals. What Black Rails eat may depend on the season and vary regionally as well. Based on studies of gut contents, food items that are known to be consumed include seeds such as those from bulrush and cattails, spiders, and insects such as beetles, weevils, ants, earwigs, and grasshoppers (Weske 1969, Flores and Eddleman 1991, Eddleman et al. 1994). Snails, amphipods, and small crustaceans have also been found (Huey 1916, Weske 1969, Flores and Eddleman 1991).

Best Time to See

Although they are active through the summer, Black Rails call most frequently early in the breeding season in May and June. Extreme dates reported in New York are April 19 and January 6.

  • Active
  • Reproducing

The time of year you would expect to find Black Rail active and reproducing in New York.

Black Rail Images


Black Rail
Laterallus jamaicensis (Gmelin, 1789)

  • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Craniata
      • Class Aves (Birds)
        • Order Gruiformes (Rails and Cranes)
          • Family Rallidae (Rails, Gallinnules, and Coots)

Additional Resources


American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online:

Andrle, Robert F. and Janet R. Carroll, editors. 1988. The atlas of breeding birds in New York State. Cornell University Press. 551 pp.

Angradi, T.R., S.M. Hagan, and K.W. Able. 2001. Vegetation type and the intertidal macroinvertebrate fauna of a brackish marsh: Phragmites vs. Spartina.

Bent, A. C. 1926. Life histories of North American marsh birds. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. 135.

Bull, John. 1964. Birds of the New York area. New York: Harper and Row Publications 540 pp.

Bull, John. 1974. Birds of New York State. Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 655 pp.

California Department of Fish and Game (CDF&G). 1990. 1989 annual report on the status of California's state listed threatened and endangered plants and animals. 188 pp.

Carter, M., C. Hunter, D. Pashley, and D. Petit. 1998. The Watch List. Bird Conservation, Summer 1998:10.

Carter, M., G. Fenwick, C. Hunter, D. Pashley, D. Petit, J. Price, and J. Trapp. 1996. Watchlist 1996: For the future. Field Notes 50(3):238-240.

Davidson, L. M. 1992. Black rail, LATERALLUS JAMAICENSIS. Pages 119-134 in K. J. Schneider and D. M. Pence, editors. Migratory nongame birds of management concern in the Northeast. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Newton Corner, Massachusetts. 400 pp.

Eaton, E.H. 1910. Birds of New York. Part 1. New York: University of State of New York. Albany, NY.

Eddleman, W. R., F. L. Knopf, B. Meanley, F. A. Reid, and R. Zembal. 1988. Conservation of North American rallids. Wilson Bull. 100:458-475.

Ehrlich, P. R., D. S. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1992. Birds in Jeopardy: the Imperiled and Extinct Birds of the United States and Canada, Including Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 259 pp.

Erwin, R. M., G.M. Sanders, and D.J. Prosser. 2004. Changes in lagoonal marsh morphology at selected northeastern Atlantic Coast sites of significance to migratory waterbirds. Wetlands 24:891-903.

Evens, J. G., et al. 1991. Distribution, relative abundance and status of the California black rail in western North America. Condor 93:952-966.

Evens, J., and G. W. Page. 1986. Predation on black rails during high tides in salt marshes. Condor 88:107-109.

Flores, R. E. and W. R. Eddleman. 1991. Ecology of the California Black Rail in southwestern Arizona. Final Rept., U.S. Bur. Reclam., Yuma Proj. Off. and Arizona Dept. Game & Fish, Yuma, AZ.

Harrison, C. 1978. A Field Guide to the Nests, Eggs and Nestlings of North American Birds. Collins, Cleveland, Ohio.

Harrison, H. H. 1979. A field guide to western birds' nests. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 279 pp.

Huey, L. M. 1916. The Farallon Rails of San Diego County. Condor 18:58-62.

Kerlinger, P. and C. Sutton. 1989. Black Rail in New Jersey. Records of New Jersey Birds 15:22-26.

Kolker, A.S. 2005. The impacts of climate variability and anthropogenic activities on salt marsh accretion and loss on Long Island. Dissertation. State University of New York at Stony Brook. 759 pp.

Levine, E. 1998. Bull's birds of New York State. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NY.

McGowan, K.J. and K. Corwin, eds. 2008. The Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in New York State: 2000-2005. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. 688 pp.

Montalto, F.A. and T.S. Steenhuis. 2004. The link between hydrology and restoration of tidal marshes in the New York/New Jersey Estuary. Wetlands 24: 414-425.

National Geographic Society (NGS). 1983. Field guide to the birds of North America. National Geographic Society, Washington, DC.

New York Natural Heritage Program. 2019. New York Natural Heritage Program Databases. Albany, NY.

New York State Breeding Bird Atlas. 1985. Final breeding bird distribution maps, 1980-1985. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Wildlife Resources Center. Delmar, NY.

New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Checklist of the amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals of New York State, including their protective status. Nongame Unit, Wildlife Resources Center, Delmar, NY.

Post, W. and F. Enders. 1969. Reappearance of the black rail on Long Island. Kingbird 19:189-191.

Raffaele, H. A. 1983. A guide to the birds of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Fondo Educativo Interamericano, San Juan, Puerto Rico. 255 pp.

Repking, C. F. 1975. Distribution and habitat requirements of the Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis) along the lower Colorado River. Master's thesis. Arizona State Univ. Tempe.

Reynard, G. B. 1972. Vocalizations of the female Black Rail. Cassinia 53:24-26.

Ripley, S. D. 1977. Rails of the world. M.F. Feheley Publishers, Ltd., Toronto. 406 pp. [publication by same name published by Smithsonian 1984; same?]

Stiles, F. G. and A. F. Skutch. 1989. A guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA. 511 pp.

Walsh, J.V.E, R. Kane, and T. Halliwell. 1999. Birds of New Jersey. New Jersey Audubon Society, Bernardsville, NJ.

Wayne, A. T. 1905. Breeding of the Little Black Rail (Porzana jamaicensis) in South Carolina. Warbler 1:33-35.

Weske, J. S. 1969. An ecological study of the Black Rail in Dorchester County, Maryland. Master's Thesis. Cornell Univ. Ithaca, NY.

Wilbur, S. R. 1974. The literature of the California Black Rail. Spec. Sci. Rept.-Wildl. No. 179. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Washington, D.C.

Wilson, M.D., B.D. Watts, and D.F. Brinker. 2007. Status review of Chesapeake Bay marsh lands and breeding marsh birds. Waterbirds 30:122-137.


About This Guide

This guide was authored by: Kelly A. Perkins

Information for this guide was last updated on: January 16, 2019

Please cite this page as:
New York Natural Heritage Program. 2019. Online Conservation Guide for Laterallus jamaicensis. Available from: Accessed January 18, 2019.

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