Botrychium oneidense Kenneth Hull

Botrychium oneidense
Kenneth Hull

Class
Ophioglossopsida
Family
Ophioglossaceae (adder's-tongue family)
State Protection
Threatened
Listed as Threatened by New York State: likely to become Endangered in the foreseeable future. For animals, taking, importation, transportation, or possession is prohibited, except under license or permit. For plants, removal or damage without the consent of the landowner is prohibited.
Federal Protection
Not Listed
State Conservation Status Rank
S2S3
Imperiled or Vulnerable in New York - Very vulnerable, or vulnerable, to disappearing from New York, due to rarity or other factors; typically 6 to 80 populations or locations in New York, few individuals, restricted range, few remaining acres (or miles of stream), and/or recent and widespread declines. More information is needed to assign either S2 or S3.
Global Conservation Status Rank
G4
Apparently Secure globally - Uncommon in the world but not rare; usually widespread, but may be rare in some parts of its range; possibly some cause for long-term concern due to declines or other factors.

Summary

Did you know?

The species is named for Oneida County, New York. The specimen used to describe this species was collected on the Mohawk Flats near Utica. During dry years this plant may not produce leaves at all but remain as an underground stem until wet weather returns.

State Ranking Justification

There are eight existing populations, most of them of small size, but there are over 30 occurrences that have not been field checked. The difficulty of finding this small plant makes it more difficult to determine its true status.

Short-term Trends

Not enough data has been gathered to evaluate the short-term trend of this fern. Of the six populations that have been discovered since 1980 two have been revisited and the plants seem to be doing well.

Long-term Trends

There were about 30 populations discovered before 1980 and only one of these has been rediscovered. More effort needs to be given to redisovering these other sites, however, this is a plant that likely moves around within large landscapes. There is speculation that this plant has declined over the last 100 years, but more evidence is needed. Certainly a lot of potential habitat has been lost since European colonization.

Conservation and Management

Threats

The existing populations grow in areas that are mostly protected and are not subject to any immediate threats. Historical populations may be threatened by habitat development and wetland loss.

Conservation Strategies and Management Practices

The forested areas where this species occurs need to remain undisturbed. A sufficient buffer should be established to prevent changes in ecological processes and the introduction of invasive species.

Research Needs

More specimens and photographs need to be collected to catalog the range of variation of this species in New York.

Habitat

Habitat

This fern is found on highly organic moist soils and sandy soils of mixed deciduous hardwood forests including the lower slopes of maple forests, secondary forests, wet woods along stream corridors, creek gorges, and other rich, moist forests (New York Natural Heritage Program 2006). In moist, shady, acidic woods and swamps (Flora of North America 1993). Rich moist woods and swamps (Gleason 1991). Low, wet, acid secondary woods and swamps (Wagner 1961).

Associated Ecological Communities

  • Beech-maple mesic forest (guide)
    A hardwood forest with sugar maple and American beech codominant. This is a broadly defined community type with several variants. These forests occur on moist, well-drained, usually acid soils. Common associates are yellow birch, white ash, hop hornbeam, and red maple.
  • Floodplain forest* (guide)
    A hardwood forest that occurs on mineral soils on low terraces of river floodplains and river deltas. These sites are characterized by their flood regime; low areas are annually flooded in spring, and high areas are flooded irregularly. * probable association but not confirmed.
  • Maple-basswood rich mesic forest* (guide)
    A species rich hardwood forest that typically occurs on well-drained, moist soils of circumneutral pH. Rich herbs are predominant in the ground layer and are usually correlated with calcareous bedrock, although bedrock does not have to be exposed. The dominant trees are sugar maple, basswood, and white ash. * probable association but not confirmed.
  • Red maple-blackgum swamp* (guide)
    A maritime, coastal, or inland hardwood swamp that occurs in poorly drained depressions, sometimes in a narrow band between a stream and upland. Red maple and blackgum are often codominant or blackgum may be the dominant tree. Pitch pine may occur on drier hummock islands in pine barrens settings. * probable association but not confirmed.
  • Red maple-hardwood swamp (guide)
    A hardwood swamp that occurs in poorly drained depressions, usually on inorganic soils. Red maple is usually the most abundant canopy tree, but it can also be codominant with white, green, or black ash; white or slippery elm; yellow birch; and swamp white oak.
  • Rich mesophytic forest* (guide)
    A hardwood or mixed forest that resembles the mixed mesophytic forests of the Allegheny Plateau south of New York but is less diverse. It occurs on rich, fine-textured, well-drained soils that are favorable for the dominance of a wide variety of tree species. A canopy with a relatively large number of codominant trees characterizes this forest. Canopy codominants include five or more of the following species: red oak, red maple, white ash, American beech, sugar maple, black cherry, cucumber tree, and black birch. * probable association but not confirmed.
  • Successional northern hardwoods
    A hardwood or mixed forest that occurs on sites that have been cleared or otherwise disturbed. Canopy trees are usually relatively young in age (25-50 years old) and signs of earlier forest disturbance are often evident. Characteristic trees and shrubs include any of the following: quaking aspen, big-tooth aspen, balsam poplar, paper birch, gray birch, pin cherry, black cherry, red maple, and white pine.

Associated Species

  • Acer rubrum var. rubrum (common red maple)
  • Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
  • Botrychium dissectum (dissected grapefern)
  • Clethra alnifolia (coastal sweet-pepperbush)
  • Dioscorea villosa (wild yam)
  • Fagus grandifolia (American beech)
  • Ilex verticillata (common winterberry)
  • Lindera benzoin (spicebush)
  • Nyssa sylvatica (black-gum, sour-gum)
  • Pinus rigida (pitch pine)
  • Prunus serotina
  • Rubus hispidus (swamp dewberry)
  • Thelypteris palustris
  • Toxicodendron vernix (poison-sumac)
  • Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)

Range

New York State Distribution

Blunt-lobed grape fern is scattered across New York State south of the Adirondacks.

Global Distribution

The range of Botrychium oneidense is from New Brunswick to Ontario, Canada, and Minnesota, south to North Carolina and Tennessee in the mountains. It seems to be most common in the center of its range from Pennsylvania to Michigan.

Identification Comments

General Description

Blunt-lobe Grape Fern is a perennial, evergreen fern. Its roots are pale gray or ivory colored to tan, smooth, and average 2.5 mm diameter about 1 cm from the stem. This diameter decreases to 2.0 mm when dried. The common leaf stem of the fertile and sterile segments is up to 2 1/2 inches long while the leaf stem of the more erect fertile segment can be up to 9 inches long. This spore-bearing portion of the leaf can be up to 5 1/2 inches long. The leaf stem of the sterile leaf can be up to 10 inches long. The sterile leaf blade appears in the middle of May, is flat, leathery, dull bluish green, and grows up to 7 inches long and 6 inches wide. It is divided into two or three broadly triangular leaflets (pinnae). The terminal pinna blade is egg shaped in outline and larger than the lateral pinnae. The pinnae are again divided into pinnules which are divided into segments. The pinnules of the terminal pinna are more or less undivided at the tips. The ultimate segments of the pinnules are comparatively large and rounded, finely to bluntly toothed, to nearly smooth. The surface of the leaf is somewhat dull and smooth. When the leaves unfold in the spring they are lime green and remain in dull green throughout the winter where they are exposed.

Identifying Characteristics

Blunt-lobe Grape Fern is a perennial, evergreen fern. Roots pale gray or ivory colored to tan, smooth, average 2.5 mm diameter about 1 cm from the stem, 2.0 mm when dried. The common petiole of fertile and sterile segments up to 9 cm long. Petiole of erect fertile segment to 22 cm long, sporophyll to 14 cm long. Petiole of the sterile leaf to 14 cm long. Sterile leaf blade to 14 cm long and 23 cm wide, appearing in mid-May, divided into two or three broadly triangular pinnae. Terminal pinna ovate and larger than the lateral pinnae, pinnules more or less undivided at the tips. Ultimate pinnule segments obliquely ovate, apex rounded to acute, finely to bluntly toothed, to nearly smooth. Leaf surface somewhat dull and smooth. New spring leaves lime green remaining dull green throughout the winter where they are exposed.

Best Life Stage for Proper Identification

Only the fully expanded leaf is needed for identification.

Similar Species

In Botrychium multifidum and Botrychium rugulosum the terminal pinna is about the same size as the lateral pinnae. The pinnules are regularly divided into segments of about the same size and shape right up to the tips of the pinnae. In Botrychium dissectum the roots are dark gray-brown and 3 mm diameter about 1 cm from the stem. The terminal pinna is narrowly lance-shaped and the ultimate segments of the pinnules are somewhat pointed. When the leaves unfold in the spring they are reddish and often turn bronze-colored in the winter. Botrychium oneidense is usually only found in low shaded forests and swamps where the other three closely related species can be found in open habitats.

Best Time to See

The best time to identify this fern is from June through early fall. Even though the leaf is evergreen it is more difficult to see after leaf fall. It can be separated from Botrychium dissectum by the color of the new leaf in mid-May and the color of the old leaf in the fall, so ideally surveys would take places at these two different periods.

  • Vegetative
  • Fruiting

The time of year you would expect to find Blunt-lobe Grape Fern vegetative and fruiting in New York.

Blunt-lobe Grape Fern Images

Taxonomy

Blunt-lobe Grape Fern
Botrychium oneidense (Gilbert) House

  • Kingdom Plantae
    • Phylum Filicinophyta
      • Class Ophioglossopsida
        • Order Ophioglossales
          • Family Ophioglossaceae (adder's-tongue family)

Additional Common Names

  • Oneida Grape Fern

Synonyms

  • Botrychium dissectum var. oneidense (Gilb.) Clute
  • Botrychium dissectum x multifidum
  • Botrychium multifidum var. oneidense (Gilb.) Farw.
  • Botrychium obliquum var. oneidense (Gilb.) Waters

Additional Resources

Best Identification Reference

Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993. Flora of North America, North of Mexico. Volume 2. Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Oxford University Press, New York. 475 pp.

Other References

Clausen, R.T. 1943. Studies in the Ophioglossaceae: Botrychium Subgenus Sceptridium. American Fern Journal 33:11-27.

Clausen, Robert T. 1944. On the status of Botrychium dissectum var. oneidense. American Fern Journal 34(2): 55-60.

Cobb, Boughton. 1984. A field guide to ferns and their related families. 281 pp.. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, New York. The Peterson Field Guide Series.

Cody, W.J., and D.M. Britton. 1989. Ferns and fern allies of Canada. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa. 430 pp.

Dix, W.L. 1945. Observed characteristics of Botrychium multifidum var. oneidense. American Fern Journal 35: 37-39.

Eaton, S.W. and E.F. Schrot. 1987. A flora of the vascular plants of Cattaraugus County, New York. Bull. Buffalo Society Natural Sci. 31: 1-235.

Gilbert, B.D. 1901. The Ternate Botrychia in Central New York. The Fern Bulletin 15(2): 25-28.

Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

Holmgren, Noel. 1998. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

Lellinger, David B. 1985. A Field Manual of the ferns and fern-allies of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 389 Pp.

Mitchell, Richard S. and Gordon C. Tucker. 1997. Revised Checklist of New York State Plants. Contributions to a Flora of New York State. Checklist IV. Bulletin No. 490. New York State Museum. Albany, NY. 400 pp.

New York Natural Heritage Program. 2010. Biotics database. New York Natural Heritage Program. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY.

New York Natural Heritage Program. 2019. New York Natural Heritage Program Databases. Albany, NY.

Rhoads, Ann F. and Timothy A. Block. 2000. The Plants of Pennsylvania, an Illustrated Manual. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA.

Wagner, W.H. 1959. American Grapeferns Resembling Botrychium Ternatum: A Preliminary Report. American Fern Journal 49:97-103.

Weldy, T. and D. Werier. 2010. New York flora atlas. [S.M. Landry, K.N. Campbell, and L.D. Mabe (original application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research http://www.fccdr.usf.edu/. University of South Florida http://www.usf.edu/]. New York Flora Association http://newyork.plantatlas.usf.edu/, Albany, New York

Weldy, Troy W. and David Werier. 2005. New York Flora Atlas. [S.M. Landry, K.N. Campbell, and L.D. Mabe (original application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research. University of South Florida]. New York Flora Association, Albany, NY. Available on the web at (http://newyork.plantatlas.usf.edu/).

Zenkert, Charles A. 1934. The Flora of the Niagara Frontier Region. Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, Vol 16. Buffalo, NY. 328 Pp.

Links

About This Guide

Information for this guide was last updated on: April 18, 2006

Please cite this page as:
New York Natural Heritage Program. 2019. Online Conservation Guide for Botrychium oneidense. Available from: https://guides.nynhp.org/blunt-lobe-grape-fern/. Accessed September 23, 2019.

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