Organisms of marine rocky intertidal environments are adapted to survive under particularly dynamic conditions. The organisms (e.g., algae, sea stars, barnacles, mussels) of this community are exposed to moisture changes, temperature extremes, wave energy, and water salinity changes. For example, as the water recedes during low tide, pools remain in the low spots of the rocky substrate. The organisms that spend low tide within these pools face heat and desiccation stress as the water warms from the sun and evaporates, concentrating the salt levels to a level higher than that of the ocean. Following a heavy rain, however, the water salinity of the tide pools may become close to that of freshwater.
There are probably less than 40 occurrences statewide. A few documented occurrences have good viability, but the level of protection of most occurrences is uncertain. This community has a very limited distribution in the state and is restricted to the portions of the state that have rocky ocean shorelines. There are at least three large, high quality examples (Fishers Island Plum Island, and Montauk Point). The current trend of this community is probably stable in the short term, but may decline slightly in the future due to moderate threats that include alteration of the natural shoreline, invasive species, and sea level rise.
The number and acreage of marine rocky intertidal communities in New York have probably remained stable in recent decades as a result of coastal protection regulations, although some examples may be reduced in size by the spread of non-native invasive marine algae.
The number and acreage of marine rocky intertidal communities in New York has probably declined moderately from historical numbers likely correlated to the alteration of the ocean shoreline by development.
The primary threat to marine rocky intertidal communities is the spread of non-native marine algae (e.g., Codium fragile). In addition, marine rocky intertidal communty occurrences are threatened by trampling, shoreline development, pollution run-off from upland areas, and trash dumping. Ocean derived pollution may threaten marine rocky intertidal communities. Over-collecting of tidal pool fauna may be a minor threat at a few sites.
Where practical, establish and maintain a natural shoreline buffer to reduce storm-water, pollution, and nutrient run-off, while simultaneously capturing sediments before they reach the rocky shore. Buffer width should take into account the erodibility of the surrounding soils, slope steepness, and current land use. Avoid habitat alteration within the intertidal area and surrounding landscape. Restore sites affected by unnatural disturbance (e.g, remove obsolete sea walls and drain pipes in order to restore the natural tidal regime). Prevent the spread of invasive exotic species into the intertidal area through appropriate direct management.
When considering development activities, minimize actions that will change what water carries and how water travels to the rocky shore. Water traveling over-the-ground as run-off usually carries an abundance of silt, clay, and other particulates during (and often after) a construction project. While still suspended in the water, these particulates make it difficult for aquatic animals to find food; after settling to the bottom, these particulates bury small plants and animals and alter the natural functions of the community in many other ways. Development activities near this community type should strive to minimize particulate-laden run-off into this community. Water traveling on the ground or seeping through the ground also carries dissolved minerals and chemicals. Fertilizers, detergents, and other chemicals that increase the nutrient levels in tidal areas. Herbicides and pesticides often travel far from where they are applied and have lasting effects on the quality of the natural community.
Survey for occurrences statewide to advance documentation and classification of marine rocky intertidal areas. A statewide review of marine rocky intertidal communities is desirable. Minimally, revisit sites with records older than ten years, and ideally collect plot data for all occurrences across littoral zones. Continue searching for large sites in good condition (A- to AB-ranked).
Research the influence that sea level rise has on the structure and composition of marine rocky intertidal areas. Research is needed to determine the distribution and invasiveness of Codium fragile and other non-native organisms to this community. Research composition of marine rocky intertidal areas statewide in order to characterize floral and faunal variations across the littoral gradient.
This community is restricted to the rocky ocean shores in Bronx, Westchester, and Suffolk counties. The largest examples are found on Fishers Island, Nappeague Bay, and Plum Island.
The marine rocky intertidal community occurs along the Atlantic coast from New York to Labrador.
A community inhabiting rocky shores that are washed by rough, high-energy ocean waves. Characteristic organisms are attached marine algae, mussels, sea stars, urchins, and barnacles that can withstand the impact of the waves and periodic desiccation. The community is typically rich in species. Attached organisms usually cover more than 60% of the substrate, especially at the lower intertidal zone. Characteristic marine algae attached to the rocks include knotted wrack (Ascophyllum nodosum), rockweeds (Fucus vesiculosis, F. spiralis), Irish moss (Chondrus crispus), green seaweed (Blidingia minima), hollow green weeds (Enteromorpha prolifera, E. intestinalis), sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca), green fleece (Codium fragile), filamentous green algae (Rhizoclonium tortuosum, R. riparium), red algae (Hildenbrandia sp.), and red tubed weed (Polysiphonia lanosa). Characteristic marine invertebrates include common blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), northern rock barnacle (Balanus balanoides), common periwinkle (Littorina littorea), rough periwinkle (Littorina saxatilis), little gray barnacle (Chthamalus fragilis), oyster drill (Urosalpinx cinerea), and Atlantic dogwinkle (Nucella lapillus). Tidal pools may include ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa), Forbes' sea star (Asterias forbesi), eastern mudsnail (Ilyanassa obsoleta), hermit crabs (Pagurus spp.), and eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica).
A rocky intertidal shoreline exposed to high-energy wave action. Often 60% or more of the rocky substrate is covered with attached organisms, such as algae, mussels, barnacles, sea stars, and other invertebrates. At low tide, rocky intertidal communities have isolated tide pools that contain algae and animals, which are trapped until the next high tide.
Rocky marine intertidal communities can be observed throughout the year, but during the warm months, when the water is warm enough for wading, this community is particularly pleasant and interesting to explore. At low tide, isolated tide pools remain in the low spots of the rock, and a variety of algae, invertebrate animals, and fish can be easily observed.
This New York natural community encompasses all or part of the concept of the following International Vegetation Classification (IVC) natural community associations. These are often described at finer resolution than New York's natural communities. The IVC is developed and maintained by NatureServe.
This New York natural community falls into the following ecological system(s). Ecological systems are often described at a coarser resolution than New York's natural communities and tend to represent clusters of associations found in similar environments. The ecological systems project is developed and maintained by NatureServe.
This figure helps visualize the structure and "look" or "feel" of a typical Marine Rocky Intertidal. Each bar represents the amount of "coverage" for all the species growing at that height. Because layers overlap (shrubs may grow under trees, for example), the shaded regions can add up to more than 100%.
Brown, B. 1993. A classification system of marine and estuarine habitats in Maine: An ecosystem approach to habitats. Part 1: benthic habitats. First iteration. Maine Natural Areas Program. Department of Economic and Community Development. Augusta, ME.
Conard, H.S. 1935. The plant associations of central Long Island. American Midland Naturalist 16:433-515.
Day, C.H. 1987. Life on Intertidal Rocks. Nature Study Guild, Rochester, New York.
Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero (editors). 2014. Ecological Communities of New York State. Second Edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke’s Ecological Communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY. http://www.dec.ny.gov/docs/wildlife_pdf/ecocomm2014.pdf
Edinger, Gregory J., D.J. Evans, Shane Gebauer, Timothy G. Howard, David M. Hunt, and Adele M. Olivero (editors). 2002. Ecological Communities of New York State. Second Edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's Ecological Communities of New York State. (Draft for review). New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 136 pp.
Gosner, K.L. 1978. A Field Guide to the Atlantic Seashore. Peterson Field Guides. Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, New York.
Kunstler, D. and P. Capainolo. 1987. Huckleberry Island: Premier waterbird colony of western Long Island. Kingbird 37:178-188.
New York Natural Heritage Program. 2019. New York Natural Heritage Program Databases. Albany, NY.
Reschke, Carol. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Latham, NY. 96 pp. plus xi.
Weiss, H.M. 1995. Marine Animals of Southern New England and New York: Identification keys to common nearshore and shallow water macrofauna. Bulletin 115. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut. Department of Environmental Protection, Hartford, CT.
White, S.K. (ed.). 2003. Life Between the Tides: marine plants and animals of the northeast. Tilbury House Publishers, Gardiner, ME.
Information for this guide was last updated on: December 8, 2006
Please cite this page as:
New York Natural Heritage Program. 2019. Online Conservation Guide for Marine rocky intertidal. Available from: https://guides.nynhp.org/marine-rocky-intertidal/. Accessed January 18, 2019.