Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero (editors). 2014. Ecological Communities of New York State. Second Edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke’s Ecological Communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY. https://www.nynhp.org/ecological-communities/
Edinger, Gregory J., D.J. Evans, Shane Gebauer, Timothy G. Howard, David M. Hunt, and Adele M. Olivero (editors). 2002. Ecological Communities of New York State. Second Edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's Ecological Communities of New York State. (Draft for review). New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 136 pp.
Gemborys, S.R. (undated). Structure, dynamics, and pattern in a virgin northern hardwood-spruce-fir forest, The Bowl, New Hampshire. Unpublished report. Dept. biology, Hampden-Sydney College. Hampden-sydney, VA. 71 pp.
Hinrichsen, D. 1986. Waldsterben. The Amicus Journal. Spring 1986. pp. 23-27.
Kucera, D.R. and P.W. Orr. 1981. Spruce budworm in the eastern United States. Forest Insect and Disease Leaflet 160. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, D.C.
Kudish, M. 1971. Vegetational history of the Catskill High Peaks. Dissertation Abstracts 1971, No. 71-30, 100, 270 pp.
Lazarus, B.E., P.G. Schaberg, D.H. DeHayes, and G.J. Hawley. 2004. Severe red spruce winter injury in 2003 creates unusual ecological event in the northeastern United States. Canadian Journal of Forest Research/Revue Canadienne de Recherche Forestiere 34:1784-1788.
McIntosh, R.P. and R.J. Hurley. 1964. The spruce fir forests of the Catskill Mountains. Ecology 45:314-326.
Mohler, C.L., P.L. Marks, and D.G. Sprugel. 1978. Stand structure and allometry of trees during self-thinning of pure stands. J. Ecol. 66:599-614.
New York Natural Heritage Program. 2023. New York Natural Heritage Program Databases. Albany, NY.
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. 1999. High Peaks Wilderness Complex Unit Management Plan: Wilderness management for the High Peaks of the Adirondack Park. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY.
Nicholson, S. 1965. Altitudinal and exposure variations of the spruce-fir forest on Whiteface Mountain. M.S. Thesis, State University of New York Albany.
Rabenold, K.N. 1978. Foraging stategies, diversity, and seasonality in bird communities of Appalachian spruce-fir forests. Ecological Monographs 48(4):397-424
Reschke, Carol. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Latham, NY. 96 pp. plus xi.
Rimmer, C.C., K.P. McFarland, W.P. Ellison, and J.E. Goetz. 2001. Bicknell's Thrush (Catharus bicknelli). In The Birds of North of America, No. 592 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc, Philadelphia, PA.
Scott, J.T., T.G. Siccama, A.H. Johnson, and A.R. Breisch. 1984. Decline of red spruce in the Adirondacks. Bull. Torrey Botanical Club 111(4):438-444.
Slack, Nancy G. 1977. Species diversity and community structure in bryophytes: New York State Studies. New York State Museum Bull. 428.
Sperduto, D.D. and C.V. Cogbill. 1999. Alpine and subalpine vegetation of the White Mountains, New Hampshire. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Inventory, Concord, New Hampshire.
United States Envoronmental Protection Agency. 2005. Effects of Acid Rain: Forests. Available on line at http:www.epa.gov/airmarkets/acidrain/effects/forests.html Accessed March 2, 2005.
Vogelmann, H.W. 1985. Forest decline on Camels Hump, Vermont. Bull. Torrey Botanical Club 112(3):274-287.
Zon, R. 1914. Balsam fir. Bull. U.S. Department Agriculture No. 55:1-68.