Coastal plain ponds contain an interesting group of species known as bladderworts. Most of the bladderwort plant lies underwater or in the wet soil with only a flowering stem rising above. These species are carnivorous and are common in these nutrient poor ponds. They trap small insects and even microscopic organisms in sophisticated "bladder" traps. When an insect brushes up against tiny hairs on the bladder it triggers the trap to snap shut. This process takes only thousandths of a second (Lloyd, F.E. 1942).
There are few documented sites for coastal plain ponds in New York. Many more exist as evidenced by the the corresponding documentation for coastal plain pond shores (nearly 60 documented). With that said, these ponds have a restricted range in New York and are found only in the coastal plain region. In addition to having a limited range, the ponds are threatened by introductions of exotic species, alterations to hydrology and water quality, commercial and residential development, recreational overuse, and by herbicide use.
Coastal plain ponds are probably continuing to see a slow decline in abundance. Changes in hydrology such as an increased demand for fresh water caused by a steady increase in development will continue to lower the water table and result in a drying up of some of the ponds. There are about 27 acres currently mapped and probably less than 200 acres extant. The historical acreage of these ponds is unknown but was probably less than 500 acres. Old maps of Long Island show more and larger ponds in the early 1900s (South Fork Natural History Society 1993).
The historical acreage of coastal plain ponds is unknown although it was estimated to be less than 500 acres. There are hand drawn maps of some ponds on Long Island from as early as the 1700s. Many of these ponds are gone or have been significantly reduced in size (South Fork Natural History Society Newsletter 1993).
The ponds are threatened by the introduction of grass carp, alterations to hydrology or water quality, and herbicide use intended to clear aquatic "weeds" from ponds for swimming and boating. Off-road vehicles, trampling of pond shore vegetation and the presence and introduction of non-native plants and animals (including from fish stocking and bait) are also potential threats to the quality of the pond community. The most significant threat to the hydrology of these ponds comes from an increase in commercial and residential development causing an increase in the demand for fresh water. This can cause a drawdown of the water table and a drying up or decrease in size of these ponds.
Probably the most critical issues regarding management for coastal plain ponds are the maintenance of a natural hydrologic regime and good water quality. Water supplies for new development and ditching, draining or impoundment activities should be looked at closely. Storm water run-off, herbicide and pesticide use should also be considered in any management program. Where practical, establish and maintain a natural wetland buffer to reduce storm-water, pollution, and nutrient run-off, while simultaneously capturing sediments before they reach the wetland. Buffer width should take into account the erodibility of the surrounding soils, slope steepness, and current land use. Wetlands protected under Article 24 are known as New York State "regulated" wetlands. The regulated area includes the wetlands themselves, as well as a protective buffer or "adjacent area" extending 100 feet landward of the wetland boundary (NYS DEC 1995). If possible, minimize the number and size of impervious surfaces in the surrounding landscape. Avoid habitat alteration within the wetland and surrounding landscape. For example, roads and trails should be routed around wetlands, and ideally not pass through the buffer area. If the wetland must be crossed, then bridges and boardwalks are preferred over filling. Restore ponds that have been unnaturally disturbed (e.g., remove obsolete impoundments and ditches in order to restore the natural hydrology). Prevent the spread of invasive exotic species into the wetland through appropriate direct management, and by minimizing potential dispersal corridors, such as roads.
When considering road construction and other development activities minimize actions that will change what water carries and how water travels to this community, both on the surface and underground. Water traveling over-the-ground as run-off usually carries an abundance of silt, clay, and other particulates during (and often after) a construction project. While still suspended in the water, these particulates make it difficult for aquatic animals to find food; after settling to the bottom of the wetland, these particulates bury small plants and animals and alter the natural functions of the community in many other ways. Thus, road construction and development activities near this community type should strive to minimize particulate-laden run-off into this community. Water traveling on the ground or seeping through the ground also carries dissolved minerals and chemicals. Road salt, for example, is becoming an increasing problem both to natural communities and as a contaminant in household wells. Fertilizers, detergents, and other chemicals that increase the nutrient levels in wetlands cause algae blooms and eventually an oxygen-depleted environment where few animals can live. Herbicides and pesticides often travel far from where they are applied and have lasting effects on the quality of the natural community. So, road construction and other development activities should strive to consider: 1. how water moves through the ground, 2. the types of dissolved substances these development activities may release, and 3. how to minimize the potential for these dissolved substances to reach this natural community.
The inventory needs for coastal plain ponds includes the documentation of additional sites and more intensive surveys of known sites. To better document this natural community, plot data in both deepwater and nearshore areas is needed. In addition, a more comprehensive plant species list is needed. Other sampling that needs to be done for community documentation includes an inventory of animal species especially invertebrates and some type of systematic sampling of water quality.
Research is needed to fill information gaps about these ponds and pond systems, especially to document differences between other types of ponds in the coastal plain area. In addition, research is needed to document variation between coastal plain ponds with regards to elevation, distance from the coast and other variables.
In New York, coastal plain ponds are restricted to the coastal lowlands in Suffolk County often in a pine barrens setting. The historical range is unknown but may have extended west to Nassau County and the New York City area.
These types of ponds could occur on coastal plains worldwide. Here in North America this type of pond community can occur along the coastal plain in glacial outwash from Ontario and possibly Nova Scotia south to Long Island, New York, and to the coastal plain of New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland. This community could also range south to the coastal plain of Virginia and the Carolinas (Kartesz 1999). Good examples are documented from the coastal plain in New York, Maryland, and Delaware and in the New Jersey Pine Barrens.
A coastal plain pond with seasonally, and annually fluctuating water levels. These are shallow, groundwater-fed ponds that occur in kettle-holes or shallow depressions on Long Island. A group of coastal plain ponds are often hydrologically connected. The pond vegetation may be abundant. Some characteristic plants include water-shield (Brasenia schreberi), white water-lily (Nymphaea odorata), bayonet-rush (Juncus militaris), spikerush (Eleocharis robbinsii), and bladderworts (Utricularia purpurea, U. fibrosa).
This is a permanent pond with a widely fluctuating water table. The pond may have abundant floating, emergent and submerged aquatic vegetation including bladderworts and waterlilies.
Known examples of this community have been found at elevations between 4 feet and 75 feet.
Visiting the ponds in mid to late summer would be best. Flowering plants such as bladderworts will be in full flower and water levels will be the lowest for the year exposing the maximum amount of shoreline.
This New York natural community encompasses all or part of the concept of the following International Vegetation Classification (IVC) natural community associations. These are often described at finer resolution than New York's natural communities. The IVC is developed and maintained by NatureServe.
This New York natural community falls into the following ecological system(s). Ecological systems are often described at a coarser resolution than New York's natural communities and tend to represent clusters of associations found in similar environments. The ecological systems project is developed and maintained by NatureServe.
Brasenia schreberi (water-shield)
Eleocharis robbinsii (Robbins's spike-rush)
Eriocaulon aquaticum (northern pipewort, northern hat-pins)
Gratiola aurea (golden hedge-hyssop)
Juncus militaris (bayonet rush)
Juncus pelocarpus (brown-fruited rush)
Myriophyllum humile (low water milfoil)
Najas flexilis (common water-nymph, common naiad)
Nymphoides cordata (little floating-heart)
Potamogeton oakesianus (Oakes's pondweed)
Utricularia purpurea (purple bladderwort)
Utricularia striata (striped bladderwort)
This figure helps visualize the structure and "look" or "feel" of a typical Coastal Plain Pond. Each bar represents the amount of "coverage" for all the species growing at that height. Because layers overlap (shrubs may grow under trees, for example), the shaded regions can add up to more than 100%.
Boone, D.D. (undated). Rare vascular plants that may be found in coastal plain ponds. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis, MD.
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This guide was authored by: Gregory J. Edinger
Information for this guide was last updated on: April 18, 2019
Please cite this page as:
New York Natural Heritage Program. 2019. Online Conservation Guide for Coastal plain pond. Available from: https://guides.nynhp.org/coastal-plain-pond/. Accessed November 19, 2019.